Introduction to organized crime criminology essay

Organized crime groups have increased in dimension and activities in the last decade and have become global threats posing a serious challenge on the international community. In the United States, such groups have continued to expand despite measures to curb them and they have established networks in the major cities.

Introduction To Organized Crime Criminology Essay

Due to that, these groups are in a position to infiltrate the financial, political, and economic systems of countries the world over. With expansion of the internet and more open borders, organized crime has gradually taken transnational nature endangering United States both from within and beyond. This threat is brought by the various criminal associations, which include, Asian, African, Russian, Middle Eastern, and Balkan syndicates.

As a result, it has become very difficult for the federal government to combat organized crime that is today very well organized and up-to-date with recent technology. During economic downturn period, organized crime could additionally weaken the economy with illicit activities for example drug trafficking and tax evasion frauds that lead to a loss of tax income for state and federal governments.

Fake activities in spheres such as tactical merchandise, credit, indemnity, securities, and reserves could extra deteriorate the troubled monetary marketplace. On the state safety front, specialists and policymakers have articulated concern over potential nexus linking organized crime and terrorism. Notwithstanding the variation in inspiration for organized crime majorly profit and terrorism being ideology, the connecting aspect of the two is money Bequai, Terrorists may potentially get financial support for their operations from collaborating frankly with structured criminal groups or molding their lucrative unlawful acts.

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Even though organized syndicates and terrorist groups do not make long-term associations, the likelihood of short-term business coalitions may be of concern to policymakers. Away from the individual illegal acts committed by organized criminal groups such as smuggling, extortion, prostitution, gambling, and labor racketeering.

The organized crime council indicates that criminal groups may penetrate strategic sectors of the economy, provide support to terrorists, smuggle people and other contrabands into the United States, using cyberspace to target American victims and infrastructure, and use violence as a basis for power. Due to the current developments, issues on management and dealing with organized criminal groups have emerged.

It is evident that to deal with organized groups there is need for the new enforcement measures. Several policy makers have argued that the available laws are not effective at countering current threats posed by these groups.

Because organized crime groups threaten America from both within borders and outside its borders. This has led to a wakeup call for the Congress as to whether they should enlarge law enforcements beyond borders to probe and put these criminals on trial, and to what level, should the Congress hearten multilateral crime fighting efforts.

Another major issue that the Congress must put in mind is the availability of resources and how much is allocated to the federal government to deal with organized criminal groups Alexander, There are numerous definitions of organized crime, in American context it is defined as a loose confederation of ethnic and regional crime groups, bound by economic and political necessity Bequai, Mainly organized crime is comprised of three different categories of criminal activities namely, professional crime, white-collar crime which involves criminals using legal instruments and the operation of crime groups striving to achieve financial gain.

According to Leviorganized crime is ongoing unlawful business or other acts accompanied by intimidation and linked to politics. Assorted analogs are summoned to understand organized crime, including such different notions as the business conglomerate and feudalism.Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on the individual and social levels.

Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, drawing especially upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law. The term criminology was coined in by Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo as criminologia. Later, French anthropologist Paul Topinard used the analogous French term criminologie.

It is criminology that is a disease. Both the Positivist and Classical Schools take a consensus view of crime — that a crime is an act that violates the basic values and beliefs of society. Those values and beliefs are manifested as laws that society agrees upon.

Organized Crime Essay

However, there are two types of laws:. Check also: Criminal Behavior. Therefore, definitions of crimes will vary from place to place, in accordance to the cultural norms and mores, but may be broadly classified as blue-collar crime, corporate crime, organized crime, political crime, public order crime, state crime, state-corporate crime, and white-collar crime.

In ordinary language, the term crime denotes an unlawful act punishable by a state. The most popular view is that crime is a category created by law; in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant and applicable law.

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Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law. The notion that acts such as murder, rape and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is a criminal offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, in some common law countries no such comprehensive statute exists. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere.

If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, execution. While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime. Breaches of private law torts and breaches of contract are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure. A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally.

This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcement, and penal responses made by society.

These structural realities remain fluid and often contentious. For example: as cultures change and the political environment shifts, societies may criminalise or decriminalise certain behaviours, which directly affects the statistical crime rates, influence the allocation of resources for the enforcement of laws, and re-influence the general public opinion.

All such adjustments to crime statistics, allied with the experience of people in their everyday lives, shape attitudes on the extent to which the State should use law or social engineering to enforce or encourage any particular social norm.

Behaviour can be controlled and influenced by a society in many ways without having to resort to the criminal justice system. Legislatures can pass laws called mala prohibita that define crimes against social norms. These laws vary from time to time and from place to place: note variations in gambling laws, for example, and the prohibition or encouragement of duelling in history.

Other crimes, called mala in se, count as outlawed in almost all societies, murder, theft and rape, for example.

introduction to organized crime criminology essay

English criminal law and the related criminal law of Commonwealth countries can define offences that the courts alone have developed over the years, without any actual legislation: common law offences. The courts used the concept of malum in se to develop various common law offences.

We write simple, Stress-free language to understand articles. We always check high standards of excellence. Written by CSS Times. Please Share your comments using Facebook ID. Download this in PDF. View all posts. You may also like.John Gotti was born on October 27, Until his death while serving a prison sentence, he was the godfather of the powerful crime gang family; the Gambino family.

He had a dominant personality, was hot tempered and his readiness to fight made him the leader of a local gang. He was incarcerated for the first time in for hijacking trucks and got out in becoming the right hand-man to Carlo Gambino. He later succeeded to the throne of the Gambino family after the death of Carlo Gambino. He was nicknamed The Dapper Don due to his meticulous appearance and cutting a public image with heroic activities BBC, ; Mustain and Capeci, Edwin Sunderland developed the differential association theory in criminology which embraces sociology in analyzing crime.

He asserted that crime is a behavior that is learned by interacting with family, peers and or associations. By associating with them, people learn different techniques of crime, crime motives and specific rationale in crime. He further proposed that the associations vary in quality by duration, frequency, intensity and priority; he concludes that if an individual has earlier associations, crime will have greater influence on such an individual Vandelay, Robert Merton developed the strain theory also called the anomie theory.

It has been acclaimed as one of the most influential sociological deviance assertion. According to Merton n. He further argues that crime is a requirement in our society for the society to achieve social progress and generate solidarity.

According to him, the social structure in our society is what gives birth to crime. He argues that the norm of achieving the American dream is through monetary stability through hard work in school and then in the economic life, but also there is an admiration for such deviant behavior like that of a robber baron who breaks all the rules in the book but achieves success; through the deviant means.

Thus he concludes that in our societies especially by American standards, success is admired more than how it was gained. Success is thus emphasized more than the approved means of achieving that success Merton, n. We are told that that Gotti started his criminal activities as a young boy of 12 years. By interacting with his peers at that tender age, he was able to be their leader and was unable to stay crime free.

He later admired the Gambino family gang and by his association with them, he knew that by committing more serious crimes he could rise in ranking. He had greater influence in his criminal activities by virtue of his earlier association in crime Smith, This seems used to keep him tight in crime and show off that despite how he achieves his American dream, he still lived large Smith, A sociological professor at New York University Jerome Skolnick has identified two types of criminal gangs; neighborhood based gangs cultural gangs and entrepreneurial gangs.

Cultural gangs are the traditional turf oriented based in the neighborhood and involved in a number of crimes. Entrepreneurial gangs do exist purposely to gain wealth by criminal activities like that of sale of illegal drugs, manufacturing and or distributing such drugs smith, Organized crime is a continuing criminal enterprise that works to profit from illicit activities that are often in great public demand.

Organized crimes can be grouped into three broad categories: provision of illicit goods, illicit services, and infiltration of business and government. Organized crimes are distinct from traditional crimes such as larceny and assault because they involve planning, multiple participants, and require corrupt measures such as threats to maintain and protect their ongoing criminal activities.

There are a number of texts that provide general overviews of transnational crime. Albanese offers a systematic typology of organized crimes, together with an explanation of causation and investigation, prosecution, defense, and sentencing issues. Other texts by AbadinskyGrennan and BritzLyman and Potterand Mallory approach organized crime by the type of group involved, or geographic region, and focus more on descriptions of different groups and their activities than on investigative response.

Nearly all these books offer at least one chapter applying criminological theory to organized crime and on transnational organized crime, and all are directed toward the undergraduate or beginning graduate-level reader. Abadinsky, Howard. Organized crime. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. A mainstream organized crime text with more than half the book discussing the histories of specific groups, plus three chapters on historical summaries of different types and past incidents of organized crimes.

Albanese, Jay S. Organized crime in our times. Newark, NJ: LexisNexis. A book designed as a textbook overview of organized crime with significant attention to a distinct typology of organized crimes, investigative, prosecution, defense, and sentencing tools. Unique chapters are included on the role of conspiracy in organized crime and on paradigms of organized crime. Grennan, Sean, and Marjie T. Organized crime: A worldwide perspective. A book focused exclusively on different types of organized crime groups with unique chapters on supremacist groups and Hispanic gangs.

Lyman, Michael D. Mallory, Stephen. Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett. An introductory textbook on organized crime with the majority of chapters focusing on specific organized crime groups with two separate chapters on Colombian and Mexican drug cartels.

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Not a member? Sign up for My OBO. Already a member? Publications Pages Publications Pages. Subscriber sign in You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Username Please enter your Username. Password Please enter your Password. Forgot password?The term criminology refers to the design and scientific study of the extent, nature, control and cause of the criminal behaviors in both the individual and society. Crime is any act committed that deprives the individuals and the society of their values, rights and beliefs.

There are different reasons why people commit crimes. Several factors such as the society, systems, culture and economy affect the criminal behaviors of a person. The criminal act may be as a result of a combination factors or one factor stated above. The reasons include anger, greed, revenge, jealousy, or pride. Many people organize for successful crimes just to acquire and live a better life. The act is in some people.

Several criminals think that the action is more lucrative than performing routine jobs. It is in their minds that crime brings joy and substantial rewards.

I think that inadequate parenting skills like neglected and sexually abused children are liable to be criminals later in life. Peer pressure and drug abuse can also lead to criminal offences. Drug users will always think negatively on how to make money for more drugs than what they have.

Income and level of education is a significant factor leading to crime.

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Low-wage earners may be tempted to get additional resources to make ends meet. Some will automatically prefer illegal processes to get cheap cash. Easy accesses to handguns which are sold cheaply give criminals a sense of security. They can be able to accomplish vicious crimes because of the support they get from the firearms. I may commit crime, especially white-collar crime, for monetary gain to meet my budgetary needs.

People become criminals through a process in their life. The life experiences people face in life makes them think differently and acquire new skills.

They eventually chose what they want to be. It is believed that all criminals have some basic denominator. The intention is to make some gains in their actions done.Corruption as will be examined was nothing new in the post-Soviet economy for its perceived rise and that of organised crime had their origins in the Soviet era.

In the Soviet Union private enterprise on an individual or business basis had officially not been allowed from when the New Economic Policy was abandoned in the […]. Popular perceptions of gang activity are often based on sensationalized images created in the media. Indeed, there are elements of gang culture that are criminal and threatening for the local population; however, gang culture is so complex that […].

Organized crime Essays

Introduction Globalization, apart from the impact it has in our everyday life, has also significantly contributed to the facilitation and the expansion of crime and more particularly the activities of transnational criminal groups. Organised crime is not a new problem for the authorities internationally, but patterns in the incidence, prevalence and concentration of organized crime […].

Why has the analysis of crimes of the powerful been such a growth area in criminology over the past century? It is tempting to give a simple or even simplistic answer to the above question: it is tempting to say that analysis and theory of crimes of the powerful have grown so quickly in the […].

However, many historians believe that s Chicago and […]. It was founded in after the world war 2. Police have been in constant wrangles with this gang trying to bring to an end the criminal activities conducted by the gang. The […]. Abstract Nowadays, the gangsterism issues happened in school was the hot topic in Malaysia.

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According Oxford dictionary, the term of Gangsters can be described as a member of a group of violent criminals and gangsterism can be described as the use of tactics associated with gangsters, as intimidation or violence, in order to achieve something.

Today, the phenomenon of the youth gang surge and spread of criminal subculture represent a relevant issue for the US. In scientific and media discourse, youth gangs are usually perceived and discussed from the standpoint of juvenile violence, delinquencies, and criminal conduct. Meanwhile, the social context and peculiarities of youth rationale for entering the gang […].

Each year, human traffickers acquire billions of dollars by forcing people to provide labor or partake in commercial sex against their own will. As a resident of […].

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All over the globe human trafficking has been in existence for thousands of years, it is the act of an illegal practices that transports men, women, and children from one country or area to another. Kennedy became the very first person to announce the fight for the presidency in America in the elections. Given the fact that his whole dynasty was in the conductors.

introduction to organized crime criminology essay

I respect him very much, only for the fact that he is one of the very first who advocated the equality of all religions. After, […]. The s in America was an era of excess, a time when the free market thrived and could be afforded.

Even products that were declared illegal could be bought from the underground. One product in particular was alcohol, a product restricted by prohibition. Prohibition stated that the production, distribution, and purchase of alcohol was illegal […]. Japan is a chain of islands located in the Pacific Ocean with a population ofpeople. This island nation is the forefront of technology, especially in Tokyo, which is also the largest city in Japan.

There are four main islands that are called Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu.Organized crime can be defined in a variety of ways. It is an ongoing criminal enterprise that is wisely working to generate profit engaging in illegal activities depending on demand, where its presence is preserve through force, intimidations, and corruption. According to the FBI, organized crime is basically a group of transnational, national, or local alliances of highly centralized enterprises run.

Organized Crime Donald Creesey was a pioneer in the study of organized crime. He was also considered the first expert on the subject.

However, his contributions to the field are now in question. In the next two articles a battle of words is waged between Joseph L. Rogovin along with Frederick T. Those are both small things that happen that involve organized crime. Organized crime is all around us and has a huge effect on how society runs and. It has provoked a stream of intellectual discussion on its nature and the impact of its diverse representations. Regardless of opposing views as to this relationship, there is a broad agreement that the media has a tendency to be selective and oversimplify.

They tend to focus largely. Introduction: This paper explores white collar crime and elaborates on the types of organized crimes through the analysis of case studies.

Furthermore, I will also discuss the differences and similarities between professional crime and organized crime. White collar crime is the use of deceptive acts to solely benefit oneself, often leaving many victimized. Within this paper, I explain which theories best clarify why individuals partake in these criminal behaviors, and preventative methods.

In addition.

introduction to organized crime criminology essay

Organized crime and corruption are substantial impairments to both investments and financial growth, which has an estimated 60 billion dollars squandered yearly in unused public resources. Transnational organized crime has manifested because of globalization and the increasing financial interdependence, which have been the placated and steadying influences that have encouraged crime across the borders, places, individuals, and identifiable victims Massari, Organized crime started.

With this class being about organized crime one would think to write about mobsters, but we decided to think outside the box. Even though when thinking of organized crime the first thought is The Italian Mafia and groups of that sort, one has to remember that organized crime comes in many different forms.

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